Nutshell Writing Tips: Lead with the Conclusion

Posted: May 5th, 2015 | Author: | Filed under: Lead from the Top, Nutshell Tips, Structure (Important Stuff Here) | Tags: , , , , | 1 Comment »

Let’s continue with my top writing tips—the concrete techniques that I find myself referring to again and again as I coach lawyers one-to-one. Here is the next tip in the series and the running list is posted below. Stay tuned!

Tip Five: Lead with the Conclusion

Lead with your conclusion. Lead from the top by putting your conclusion in the opening page and a half or, better yet, in the first paragraph. Again, the most important structural rule for any expository writing is to lead from the top and that includes having  the courage to conclude.  So be brave and take a stand in the opening of your paper.

   The Running List of Nutshell Writing Tips

1. Speak human. Write in plain English. If you would not use a word or phrase when speaking with a colleague, don’t use it in your writing. (By the way, plain English does not mean simple English. You are entitled to use your massive vocabulary, but use that vocabulary to convey nuance and precision—not to show off.) Here are more plain English tips.

2. Say your sentences out loud. Say each sentence aloud to edit for plain English and to cure clutter and awkward constructions. The best writing mimics the cadence and rhythm of human speech. Trust your ear.

3. Lead from the top.  Your opening must establish your command of your subject and “prime” your reader by telling them what to look for. The opening must explain the facts, the problem, and your answer. You should open, at most, in a page and a half. The strongest writing opens in the first paragraph. Leading from the top is the most important rule of all and here is more on how to lead from the top.

4. Begin with the background story. Your target audience is not just the attorney who gave you the assignment, but also the next person who reviews the file and who may not know the background of your case. Always set the stage by introducing the key players, explaining the nature of their relationship, and identifying the problem or issue. (In other words, skip the facts. Tell a story instead.)


P. S. These techniques are a nutshell summary of the key principles in my book, The Lawyer’s Essential Guide to Writing (ABA 2011). Follow the link to see what people have said about the book or to order it from the ABA, Amazon or Itunes.


Subscribe in a reader

One Comment on “Nutshell Writing Tips: Lead with the Conclusion”

  1. 1 Theresa said at 3:11 am on February 19th, 2016:

    Posted on These are some great tips. I have used all of the techniques above. I deeicdd that I prefer a loose outline structure, such as you. It works well for me because it gives me a general idea of where I want to go with the story, but allows for any changes to happen as I am writing. I often don’t know how the story ends either, but it usually wraps itself up nicely by the time I am done. Keep up the great information, it is very helpful!

What do you think?